Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

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Recent Accounting Pronouncements
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Accounting Changes and Error Corrections [Abstract]  
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the "FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) ("ASU 2014-09" or “Topic 606”), which amends and supersedes FASB ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition ("Topic 605"). Under the update, revenue will be recognized based on a five-step model. The core principle of the model is that revenue will be recognized when the transfer of promised goods or services to customers is made in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In the third quarter of 2015, the FASB deferred the effective date of the standard to annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. In March and April 2016, the FASB issued amendments to provide clarification on assessment of collectability criteria, presentation of sales taxes and measurement of non-cash consideration. In addition, the amendment provided clarification and included simplification to transaction guidance on contract modifications and completed contracts at transaction. In December 2016, the FASB issued amendments to provide clarification on codification and guidance application. The standard allows the option of either a full retrospective adoption, meaning the standard is applied to all periods presented, or modified retrospective adoption, meaning the standard is applied only to the most current period.

The Company offers its customers professional alarm monitoring services, as well as interactive and home automation services, through equipment at the customer’s site that communicates with the Company’s central monitoring station and interfaces with other equipment at the site and third party technology companies for interactive and home automation services. These services are typically provided under alarm monitoring agreements (“AMAs”) between the Company and the customer. The equipment at the site is either obtained independently from the Company’s network of third party Authorized Dealers or directly from the Company, via its direct-to-consumer sales channel. The Company also offers equipment sales and installation and, to its existing subscribers, maintenance services on existing alarm equipment. Due to the complexity of certain AMAs, the actual revenue recognition treatment required under Topic 606 will depend on contract-specific terms and may vary in some instances.

Under Topic 605, revenue provided under the AMA was recognized as the services were provided, based on the recurring monthly revenue amount billed for each month under contract. Equipment and installation services revenue generally was recognized as billed and incurred. Under Topic 606, the Company has preliminarily concluded that certain equipment and installation services sold or provided to its customers at AMA inception are capable of being distinct and are distinct within the context of the contract. As such, when the Company initiates an AMA with a customer directly and provides equipment and installation services, each component is considered a performance obligation that must have revenue allocated to it. The allocation is based on the stand alone selling prices (“SSP”) of each performance obligation as a percentage of the total SSP of all performance obligations multiplied by the total consideration, or cash, expected to be received over the contract term. These AMAs may relate to new customers originated by the Company through its direct-to-consumer channel or existing customers who agree to new contract terms through customer service offerings. For AMAs with multiple performance obligations, management notes that a certain amount of the revenue billed on a recurring monthly basis will be recognized earlier than is being recognized today under Topic 605, as a portion of that revenue will be allocated to the equipment sale and installation, which is satisfied upon delivery of the product and performance of the installation services at AMA inception.

Revenue on AMAs originated through the Authorized Dealer program will not be impacted by Topic 606 in their initial term, as the customer contracts for the equipment sale and installation separately with the Authorized Dealer. Revenue on these customers will be recognized as the service is provided based on the recurring monthly revenue amount billed for each month of the AMA. Maintenance service revenue for repair of existing alarm equipment at the subscribers' premises will continue to be billed and recognized based on their SSP at the time the Company performs the services.

Topic 606 also requires the deferral of incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer. Certain direct and incremental costs are being capitalized today, including on new AMAs obtained in connection with a subscriber move (“Moves Costs”). See the Subscriber Accounts section in note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, for further information. Under Topic 606, Moves Costs will now be expensed as incurred to accompany the allocated revenue recognized upon product and installation performance obligations recognized at the AMA inception. Moves Costs capitalized were $15,075,000, $15,021,000 and $13,086,000 for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The Company does not anticipate any other significant changes in contract costs that are capitalized or the period over which they are expensed.

More judgment and estimates will be required under Topic 606 than are required under Topic 605, including estimating the SSP for each performance obligation identified within the Company’s contracts. The Company is currently finalizing analyses to determine the SSP for each of the performance obligations that have been identified. The Company currently expects to calculate its SSPs based on its current pricing practices as well as third party prices observed from its competitors.

The Company currently plans to adopt Topic 606 using the modified retrospective approach. Under the modified retrospective transition method, the Company will evaluate active AMAs on the adoption date as if each AMA had been accounted for under Topic 606 from its inception. Some revenue related to AMAs originated through our direct-to-consumer channel or through extensions that would have been recognized in future periods under Topic 605 will be recast under Topic 606 as if revenue had been accelerated and recognized in prior periods, as it will be allocated to product and installation performance obligations. A contract asset will be recorded as of the adoption date for any cash that has yet to be collected on the accelerated revenue. As this transition method requires that the Company not adjust historical reported revenue amounts, the accelerated revenue that would have been recognized under this method prior to the adoption date will be an adjustment to opening retained earnings and, thus, will not be recognized as revenue in future periods as previously required under Topic 605. We expect the cumulative adjustment to be in the range of a $25,000,000 to $35,000,000 reduction to opening retained earnings, which will primarily relate to the write off of the Moves Cost asset account, net of accumulated amortization, offset by the establishment of contract assets related to the accelerated revenue associated with the product and installation performance obligations.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments-Overall (Subtopic 825-10), Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities ("ASU 2016-01"). ASU 2016-01 requires all equity investments in unconsolidated entities (other than those accounted for using the equity method of accounting) to be measured at fair value through earnings. The option for equity securities classified as available-for-sale to report changes in fair value in other comprehensive income is eliminated. Additionally, ASU 2016-01 requires using the modified retrospective application to all outstanding instruments and becomes effective January 1, 2019. Upon adoption, the Company would be required to reclassify any holding gains or losses on marketable securities in other accumulated comprehensive income on the consolidated balance sheet to beginning of period retained earnings. Any future holding gains or losses on these securities would be recognized in income at each reporting period.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) ("ASU 2016-02"). ASU 2016-02 requires the lessee to recognize assets and liabilities for leases with lease terms of more than twelve months. For leases with a term of twelve months or less, the Company is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. Further, ASU 2016-02 requires a finance lease to be recognized as both an interest expense and an amortization of the associated expense. Operating leases generally recognize the associated expense on a straight line basis. ASU 2016-02 requires the Company to adopt the standard using a modified retrospective approach and becomes effective on January 1, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-02 will have on its financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment ("ASU 2017-04"). Currently, the fair value of the reporting unit is compared with the carrying value of the reporting unit (identified as "Step 1"). If the fair value of the reporting unit is lower than its carrying amount, then the implied fair value of goodwill is calculated. If the implied fair value of goodwill is lower than the carrying value of goodwill an impairment is recognized (identified as "Step 2"). ASU 2017-04 eliminates Step 2 from the impairment test; therefore, a goodwill impairment will be recognized as the difference of the fair value and the carrying value. ASU 2017-04 becomes effective on January 1, 2020 with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating when to adopt the standard.

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting ("ASU 2017-09"). ASU 2017-09 requires modification accounting in Topic 718 to be applied to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award unless the fair value, vesting conditions and classification of the modified award are the same immediately before and after the modification of the award. ASU 2017-09 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and requires a prospective approach. Early adoption is permitted. The Company plans to adopt the standard when it becomes effective. The adoption is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities ("ASU 2017-12") to amend the hedge accounting rules to align risk management activities and financial reporting by simplifying the application of hedge accounting guidance. The guidance expands the ability to hedge nonfinancial and financial risk components and eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness. Additionally, certain hedge effectiveness assessment requirements may be accomplished qualitatively instead of quantitatively. ASU 2017-12 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2017-12 will have on its financial position, results of operations and cash flows.