Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Consolidation Principles

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, its majority owned subsidiaries over which the Company exercises control and a variable interest entity. See Note 6, Variable Interest Entity for further information. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers investments with original purchased maturities of three months or less when acquired to be cash equivalents.

Restricted Cash

Restricted cash is cash that is restricted for a specific purpose and cannot be included in the cash and cash equivalents account.

Trade Receivables

Trade receivables consist primarily of amounts due from subscribers for recurring monthly monitoring services over a wide geographical base.  The Company performs extensive credit evaluations on the portfolios of subscriber accounts prior to acquisition and requires no collateral on the accounts that are acquired. The Company has established an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") ASC Topic 326, Credit Losses ("ASC 326"), resulting from the inability of subscribers to make required payments. Factors such as historical-loss experience, recoveries and economic conditions are considered in determining the sufficiency of the allowance to cover potential losses. The allowance for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $3,096,000 and $3,828,000, respectively.

A summary of activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts is as follows (amounts in thousands):
Balance
Beginning
of Period
Charged
to Expense
Write-Offs
and Other
Balance
End of
Period
Year Ended December 31, 2020 (Successor Company) $ 3,828  $ 8,538  $ (9,270) $ 3,096 
Period from September 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019 (Successor Company)
$ —  $ 3,828  $ —  $ 3,828 
Period from January 1, 2019 through August 31, 2019 (Predecessor Company)
$ 3,759  $ 7,558  $ (11,317) $ — 
Year Ended December 31, 2018 (Predecessor Company) $ 4,162  $ 12,300  $ (12,703) $ 3,759 

Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of trade accounts receivable.  The Company performs extensive credit evaluations on the portfolios of subscriber accounts prior to acquisition and requires no collateral on the subscriber accounts that are acquired. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade accounts receivable are generally limited due to the large number of subscribers comprising the Company's customer base.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Fair values of cash equivalents, current accounts receivable and current accounts payable approximate their carrying amounts because of their short-term nature. The Company's debt instruments are recorded at amortized cost on the consolidated balance sheet. See Note 11, Derivatives and Note 12, Fair Value Measurements for further fair value information on the Company's debt instruments.

Inventories

Inventories consist of security system components and parts and are stated at the lower of cost (using the weighted average costing method) or net realizable value.
Property and Equipment

Property and equipment are carried at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the term of the underlying lease. Estimated useful lives by class of asset are as follows:
Leasehold improvements
15 years or lease term, if shorter
Computer systems and software
3 - 5 years
Furniture and fixtures
5 - 7 years

Management reviews the realizability of its property and equipment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. In evaluating the value and future benefits of long-term assets, their carrying value is compared to management’s best estimate of undiscounted future cash flows over the remaining economic life. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the estimated fair value of the assets. If necessary, the Company would use both the income approach and market approach to estimate fair value.

Subscriber Accounts

Subscriber accounts relate primarily to the monitoring service contracts acquired from independent dealers.  The subscriber accounts asset was adjusted to fair value in connection with the Company's application of fresh start accounting under ASC 852 upon the Company's emergence from Chapter 11 (see Note 4, Fresh Start Accounting for further information). The valuation of subscriber accounts was based on the projected cash flows to be generated by the existing subscribers as of the Effective Date. Subscriber accounts acquired after the Company's emergence from bankruptcy are recorded at cost.  All direct and incremental costs associated with the acquisition of monitoring service contracts from its independent dealers are capitalized (the "subscriber accounts asset"). Upon adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2014-19, Revenue from Contracts with customers (Topic 606), as amended, all costs on new subscriber contracts obtained in connection with a subscriber move ("Moves Costs") are expensed, whereas prior to adoption, certain Moves Costs were capitalized on the balance sheet. Also included in the subscriber accounts are capitalized contract costs related to bonus incentives and other incremental costs associated with accounts originated in the Direct to Consumer Channel.

The fair value of subscriber accounts as of the Company's emergence from Chapter 11, as well as certain accounts acquired in bulk purchases, are amortized using the 14-year 235% declining balance method. The costs of all other subscriber accounts and capitalized contract costs are amortized using the 15-year 220% declining balance method, beginning in the month following the date of acquisition. The amortization methods were selected to provide an approximate matching of the amortization of the subscriber accounts intangible asset to estimated future subscriber revenues based on the projected lives of individual subscriber contracts. Amortization of subscriber accounts for the Successor Company year ended December 31, 2020, the Successor Company period September 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019, the Predecessor Company period January 1, 2019 through August 31, 2019 and the Predecessor Company year ended December 31, 2018 was $193,037,000, $61,771,000, $130,411,000 and $204,130,000, respectively.

Based on subscriber accounts held at December 31, 2020, estimated amortization of subscriber accounts in the succeeding five fiscal years ending December 31 is as follows (amounts in thousands):
2021 $ 183,239 
2022 $ 152,775 
2023 $ 127,371 
2024 $ 106,186 
2025 $ 88,518 

The Company has processes and controls in place, including the review of key performance indicators, to assist management in identifying events or circumstances that indicate the subscriber accounts asset may not be recoverable. If an indicator that the asset may not be recoverable exists, management tests the subscriber accounts asset for impairment. For purposes of recognition and measurement of an impairment loss, we view subscriber accounts as a single pool because of the assets' homogeneous characteristics, and the pool of subscriber accounts is the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of the other assets and liabilities. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the
impairment loss to be recognized is measured as the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the estimated fair value, as determined using the income approach.

In addition, the Company reviews the subscriber accounts asset amortization methodology annually to ensure the methodology is consistent with actual experience.

Dealer Network and Other Intangible Assets

Upon the adoption of fresh start accounting on August 31, 2019, the fair value of our dealer network as of that date was determined and recorded as an intangible asset. Furthermore, a fair value adjustment related to the Company's leasehold agreement was recorded as an other intangible asset. See Note 4, Fresh Start Accounting for further information.

The Predecessor Company dealer network was an intangible asset that related to the dealer relationships that were acquired as part of the acquisition of Security Networks, LLC ("Security Networks"). Other Predecessor Company intangible assets consisted of non-compete agreements signed by the seller of Security Networks and certain key Security Networks executives. These Predecessor Company intangible assets were amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives of 5 years. These Predecessor Company intangible assets were fully amortized during 2018. The LiveWatch trade mark asset was initially to be amortized over 10 years. Upon the rollout of the Brinks Home Security brand in the second quarter of 2018, it was determined that the LiveWatch trade mark asset had no remaining useful life and the remaining asset balance was amortized.

Amortization of dealer network and other intangible assets for the Successor Company year ended December 31, 2020, the Successor Company period September 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019, the Predecessor Company period January 1, 2019 through August 31, 2019 and the Predecessor Company year ended December 31, 2018 was $24,236,000, $7,922,000, $0 and $6,994,000, respectively.

Goodwill

The Company accounts for its goodwill pursuant to the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other ("ASC 350").  In accordance with ASC 350, goodwill is not amortized, but rather tested for impairment at least annually, or earlier if an event occurs, or circumstances change, that indicate the fair value of a reporting unit may be below its carrying amount.

To the extent necessary, recoverability of goodwill at a reporting unit level is measured using a discounted cash flow model incorporating discount rates commensurate with the risks involved, which is classified as a Level 3 measurement under FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures. The key assumptions used in the discounted cash flow valuation model include discount rates, growth and attrition rates, cash flow projections and terminal value rates. Discount rates, growth rates and cash flow projections are the most sensitive and susceptible to change as they require significant management judgment. An impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit's fair value.

Holdback Liability

The Company typically withholds payment of a designated percentage of the acquisition cost when it acquires subscriber accounts from dealers. The withheld funds are recorded as a liability until the guarantee period provided by the dealer has expired. The holdback is used as a reserve to cover any terminated subscriber accounts that are not replaced by the dealer during the guarantee period. At the end of the guarantee period, the dealer is responsible for any deficit or is paid the balance of the holdback.

Derivative Financial Instruments

The Company uses derivative financial instruments to manage exposure to movement in interest rates. The use of these financial instruments modifies the exposure of these risks with the intention of reducing the risk or cost. The Company does not use derivatives for speculative or trading purposes. The Company recognizes the fair value of all derivative instruments as either assets or liabilities at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets. Fair value is based on market quotes for similar instruments with the same duration. For derivative instruments that qualify for hedge accounting under the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, unrealized gains and losses on the derivative instruments are reported in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), to the extent the hedges are effective, until the underlying transactions are
recognized in earnings. Derivative instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are marked to market at the end of each accounting period with the change in fair value recorded in earnings.

Revenue Recognition

The Company offers its subscribers professional alarm monitoring services, as well as interactive and home automation services, through equipment at the subscriber's site that communicates with the Company’s alarm monitoring station and interfaces with other equipment at the site and third-party technology companies for interactive and home automation services. These services are typically provided under alarm monitoring agreements ("AMAs") between the Company and the subscriber. The equipment at the site is either obtained independently from our Network Sales Channel or from our Direct to Consumer Channel. The Company also offers equipment sales and installation services and, to our existing subscribers, maintenance services on existing alarm equipment. Additionally, the Company collects fees for contract monitoring, which are services provided to other security alarm companies for monitoring their accounts on a wholesale basis and other fees from subscribers for late fee or insufficient fund charges.

Revenue under subscriber AMAs is allocated to alarm monitoring revenue and, if applicable, product and installation revenue based on the stand alone selling prices ("SSP") of each performance obligation as a percentage of the total SSP of all performance obligations. Allocated alarm monitoring revenue is recognized as the monthly service is provided. Allocated product and installation revenue is recognized when the product sale is complete or shipped and the installation service is provided, typically at inception of the AMA. Product and installation revenue is not applicable to AMA's acquired from the Dealer Channel in their initial term. A contract asset is reported to the extent that cumulative revenue recognized for a contract exceeds of the sum of cash received and any outstanding accounts receivable. Contract assets are released to accounts receivable corresponding to unconditional rights to collect consideration that arise from the Company’s performance and billing of services under the terms of the AMA.

Maintenance services are billed and recognized as revenue when the services are completed in the home and agreed to by the subscriber under the subscriber AMA. Contract monitoring fees are recognized as alarm monitoring revenue as the monitoring service is provided. Other fees are recognized as other revenue when billed to the subscriber which coincides with the timing of when the services are provided.

A policy election is applied to exclude transaction taxes (e.g., sales taxes) collected from customers from revenue when the tax is both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction.

The Company records an allowance for expected credit losses in accordance with ASC 326 on its contract assets that, when deducted from the gross asset balance, presents the net amounts expected to be collected. The allowance is estimated each period based on the Company’s historical loss experience with adjustments for current and expected future conditions. If a subscriber cancels the AMA within the negotiated term, any existing contract asset is determined to be impaired and is immediately written off through the allowance for expected credit losses. Provisions for credit losses are recognized in Selling, general and administrative expense on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

The changes in the allowance for expected credit losses on its contract assets for the year ending December 31, 2020 are as follows (amounts in thousands):

Balance as of January 1, 2020 $ — 
Adoption of ASU 2016-13 (1,627)
Adjusted balance as of January 1, 2020 $ (1,627)
Provision for credit losses (2,436)
Write-offs 1,978 
Balance as of December 31, 2020 $ (2,085)

See Note 5, Recent Accounting Pronouncements for further information regarding the adoption of ASU 2016-13.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes under FASB ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes ("ASC 740"), which prescribes an asset and liability approach that requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company's consolidated financial statements or tax returns. In estimating future tax
consequences, the Company generally considers all expected future events other than proposed changes in the tax law or rates. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. Income tax expense is the tax payable or refundable for the period plus or minus the change during the period in deferred tax assets and liabilities.

ASC 740 specifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in a company's consolidated financial statements and prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. In instances where the Company has taken or expects to take a tax position in its tax return and the Company believes it is more likely than not that such tax position will be upheld by the relevant taxing authority, the Company records the benefits of such tax position in its consolidated financial statements.

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company accounts for stock-based awards pursuant to FASB ASC Topic 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation ("ASC 718"), which requires companies to measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments (such as stock options and restricted stock) based on the grant-date fair value of the award, and to recognize that cost over the period during which the employee is required to provide service (usually the vesting period of the award). Forfeitures of awards are recognized as they occur.

Successor Company Basic and Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Common Share

Basic earnings (loss) per common share ("EPS") is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding for the period.  Diluted EPS is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the sum of the weighted average number shares of Common Stock outstanding and the effect of dilutive securities. For the year ended December 31, 2020 and the period from September 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019, there were no anti-dilutive securities outstanding. The weighted average number of basic and diluted shares of Common Stock was 22,500,000 for both of the year ended December 31, 2020 and the period from September 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019. There were no public shares of Common Stock outstanding prior to September 1, 2019.

Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of revenue and expenses for each reporting period.  The significant estimates made in preparation of the Company's consolidated financial statements primarily relate to valuation of subscriber accounts, deferred tax assets and goodwill. These estimates are based on management's best estimates and judgment. Management evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis using historical experience and other factors and adjusts them when facts and circumstances change. As the effects of future events cannot be determined with any certainty, actual results could differ from the estimates upon which the carrying values were based.

Supplemental Cash Flow Information

Successor Company Predecessor Company
Year Ended December 31, 2020 Period from September 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019 Period from January 1, 2019 through August 31, 2019 Year Ended December 31, 2018
State taxes paid, net $ 2,532  $ —  $ 2,637  $ 2,569 
Interest paid $ 78,954  $ 28,467  $ 72,710  $ 147,632 
Accrued capital expenditures $ 572  $ 1,804  $ 1,405  $ 552 
Earnout Payments liability $ 114,603  $ —  $ —  $ —